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The word cheer is usually associated with happiness, enthusiasm, and encouragement, whether it is carolers spreading holiday cheer; a boisterous "Cheers!" at happy hour; fans cheering on their team; or people on the sidelines cheering on marathon runners. It can also bring to mind uplifting images like a child cheering up their hurt friend with a hug and kind words, or a dog cheering up its hangdog owner with a snuggle. But cheer hasn't always been used so cheerily. Originally, a cheer was something seen, not heard, and sometimes the sight was one of sadness.

Original Meaning of 'Cheer': Face

Cheer is a loanword from Anglo-French, which itself is derived from Medieval Latin cara and probably Greek kara. All three source words mean "face," and English cheer—commonly found in the form chere in early medieval writings—shares that meaning. Cheer then came to refer to a person's facial expression as well as to a person's state of mind, heart, or spirit that is manifest in his or her visage. And as alluded to, a person's cheer ran the emotional gamut from happiness to sadness, depending on the modifier it followed or the context surrounding it.

Cheer' Gets Happier

By the late 1300s, people began associating the word more often with a state or feeling of happiness and merriment than sadness and despondency. Common examples of such use are "faces full of cheer" or "spreading a little holiday cheer."

In short time, cheer came to refer to merry hospitality or entertainment and, by extension, to the food and drink offered at festive occasions. The proverbial saying "The more the merrier, the fewer the better cheer" is based on the latter sense.

Clinking Glasses

During the first half of the 16th century, cheer began to be generally applied to anything that gladdens or that brings joy (like bountiful food and drink does), as in "words of cheer" or "a cup full of cheer."

 The development of the familiar use of the noun cheer for a shout of praise or encouragement is linked to the verb, as well is the interjection cheers. With that said, a short history on the verb cheer is in order.

Verb Usage of 'Cheer'

The verb cheer originates in the 14th century with the meaning "to give new hope to and to lift from discouragement, dejection, or sadness to a more happy state"—in short, "to comfort." Cheer then begins being used in senses such as "to make glad or happy" and "to be or become glad or happy," which are usually followed by up, as in "The ice cream cheered the child up" or "Cheer up—things will get better."

It was during the 15th century that cheer starts being used in the sense "to urge on or encourage into action especially by shouts," as in "The general cheered his troops to victory." Sailors picked up this sense of the verb about mid-17th century and applied it to the saluting of a ship with a shout—and the related noun form soon followed.

Later Usage

By the 19th century, the verb, as well as the noun, caught on with landlubbers, who began applying it specifically for shouting or applauding in support, praise, or triumph, as in "The audience cheered the graduating class"; "Three cheers for our goaltender."

Cheers is also an interjection—a spoken word, phrase, or sound that expresses feeling—and derives from the vocal senses of cheer. The earliest print evidence of cheers traces to the early 20th century; however, being an interjection, it was likely used prior. In British English, it is commonly used as an informal way to say "thank you" or "goodbye":

Cheers. Very nice of you to invite me.

I'll see you next week. Cheers.

It is also used, in both British and American English, after a toast has been made to show approval for what has been said. Glasses and bottles come together as "Cheers!" is shouted by the participants. A sip, swig, or chug follows … and perhaps another toast is made and another "Cheers!" is vocalized.

History of 'Cheer': Not Always Cheery | Merriam-Webster


Positive Re-inforcement

Burrhus Frederic “B.F.” Skinner was a psychologist and social philosopher considered to be a pioneer in the field of behaviorism. He founded a separate school of psychology known as “radical behaviorism” which differed considerably from the other schools of psychology. He believed that living beings tend to repeat the actions which they believe give them favourable results. He called this the principle of reinforcement.

Positive reinforcement is a basic principle of Skinner’s operant conditioning, which refers to the introduction of a desirable or pleasant stimulus after a behavior, such as a reward.

This desirable stimulus is intended to reinforce the behavior, making it more likely that the behavior will occur in the future. This could be used to teach new behaviors or strengthen existing ones.

Operant Conditioning is the theory that underlies Skinner’s positive reinforcement technique. In essence, the idea is that one can modify behavior by controlling the consequences that follow it.

  • The concept of positive reinforcement is associated with the work of behaviorist psychologist B. F. Skinner. As part of his work during the 1930s and 1940s, Skinner considered ways in which behavior could be changed by treating someone differently based on what they did. This theory is known as operant conditioning.
  • Positive reinforcement refers to the introduction of desirable or pleasant stimuli after the performance of a behavior. This reward can be used to further encourage that behavior, or change a pre-existing one.
  • There are four types of positive reinforcers: natural, tangible, social, and token.
  • Positive reinforcement can be delivered in experiments as part of a partially fixed schedule.
  • Positive reinforcement has numerous consequences, both in the lab and the outside world, ranging from learning and workplace conduct to social media use.

Types of Positive Reinforcement

There are four types of positive reinforcers that can be used to encourage behaviors, each of which may be more or less effective depending on the individual and the situation (Kamery, 2004).

  • Natural reinforcers are those that occur directly as a result of the behavior. For example, a person who creates a high-yielding campaign at work as a result of persistent research and effort may get raises and promotions at work.
  • Social reinforcers involve expressing approval for desirable behavior. For example, a teacher or parent may praise a child, or an employer may call an employee’s work excellent (Kamery, 2004).
  • Tangible reinforcers involve actual, physical rewards for desirable behavior. These could include candy, treats, toys, money, or some other desirable object. While these rewards can be powerful, their overuse can disincentivize the behavior when they are not used (Kamery, 2004).
  • Token reinforcers are points or tokens awarded for performing certain actions. These can then be exchanged for something of value. For example, a teacher may give a student points for completing assignments on time, which can be exchanged for a prize (Kamery, 2004).

The Fritz Effect

Trea Turner was having a bad first season of an 11-year/$300 million deal with the Phillies.


Jack Fritz of Sportsradio WIP posted on Twitter-I know he’s making $300 million so it’s unpopular to say that you feel bad for the guy but I legitimately feel bad for Trea Turner. Postgame interview was a tough watch, he’s in the cages until midnight. Just think he’s lost. A standing O on Friday would go a long way IMO.

"It was one of those moments where we could rally behind our guy," explained local Philadelphia producer Jack Fritz of SportsRadioWIP, who spearheaded the plan to applaud Turner. "Like, he's gonna be here for a while. So, why would we try to ruin the relationship this early?"

Phillies fans then organized on social media in an attempt to show support for Turner.

Trea Turner receives a standing ovation on Aug. 4. I appreciated it a lot," Turner told FOX Sports. "My family appreciated it a lot too and it seemed to be the big turnaround factor."


Since the weekend Philadelphia banded together to show Turner support, the shortstop is batting a scorching .369 (35-for-95) with nine homers and 26 RBIs.

On September 2 2023 he tallied his fifth straight game of hitting at least one HR and three RBIs- this equals the record of most consecutive games with a HR & three RBI set by Bill Dickey in 1937 and Lou Gehrig in 1931.



As of September 3,2023